From God to Newton and The Reconcilation of Science and Theology


It is not unusual to feel that in the so-called “Dark Ages” of medieval Europe, theology predominated in all the vicinity from theocracy to regalia and became the absolute authority within the spiritual global of Europe. At that time, the warfare between science and theology became serious, or extra exactly, the oppression theology placed on science changed into merciless. Science turned into left no space in the astonishing palace ruled via theology and become seen as heterodoxy.

Science and Theology


For example, Italian truth seeker and scientist Bruno, because of his insistence on clinical fact, changed into burned at stake using the Inquisition in Rome in 1600. For believing in and publicizing Copernicus’ heliocentricism, great physicist Galileo becomes put into prison for life.1 Under the top-notch stress and in the context of Western European fanaticism, there has been infrequently opportunity and space for technology to emerge. Up to the 17th and 18th centuries, technology started to strengthen hastily and defeat theology in the end. God has become “grasp not at home,” and Newton became “Chamberlain inside the international.” Why did it take place in Europe? The key is to discover the origins of the upward thrust of present-day science. To see it, we first check out Western conventional weltanschauung.

A western conventional weltanschauung is a form of dualism, toward no matter what in nature, morality, or religion, Western human beings frequently have a dualistic attitude. For instance, the classical two-valued logic based totally on actual or false duality founded by Aristotle persisted in using nowadays. Moreover, the dualism of thoughts and frame, issue and object, noumenon and phenomenon, ideal and reality, collective and character, and so forth, ought to effortlessly be determined right here and there in Western records and culture. Especially in spiritual ideals and metaphysics, Western people adhered to a dualistic position so obstinately that the transcendent global and the actual global were departed completely, and heaven and earth had been separated certainly.2 No matter in importance or value, the previous is usually better than the latter. Probing into the origins of the dualistic worldview, we could retrospect to historical Greek philosophy (especially metaphysics) and Christian theology.


Gilead Sciences

Plato’s concept of Forms asserted that the area of Forms and the realm of factors are adverse.3 “The Forms are those changeless, eternal, and nonmaterial essences or styles of which the actual visible objects we see are handiest poor copies.”4 Although Aristotle tried to triumph over Plato’s device of the dualism of Forms and actual matters, he didn’t give up the dualistic concept of truth and phenomenon5, e.G. The difference between remembering and form.

Another detail of the Western traditional dualistic worldview is Christian theology. Obviously, the city of God and the city of the world, as well as religion and purpose, are resolved wonderfully inside the Bible. Christian theology assured that any values and ideals that couldn’t be fulfilled inside the globe would be completed in paradise best in case you verify the life of God and consider in God piously. If as compared to the absolute Christian beliefs, any moral or ethical fee or temporal perfect shows straight away insignificance in itself. For instance, Jesus’ reaction to the questions about paying tax – “Give consequently to the emperor the things which can be the emperor’s, and to God the matters that are God’s.”(Matthew 22: 22) typically represented the dualism of Christian theology.

The Christian theological notion above blended with Plato’s concept of Forms, and Aristotle’s metaphysics later built the voluminous gadget of scholasticism. In extra than 1000 12 months of the medieval ecclesiastic gadget, the Christian theology changed into the dominant ideology of Western Europe.

In this context, even though the clinical researchers have never been stopping absolutely, the clinical looking for and exploring nature or even all the secular concerns faced with this perfect, natural, and transcendental realm built by Christian theology were suffering despisal, forget about and oppression. Christian theology has become the unique absolute preferred of Western people and persecuted the ones disobediently. Although theology almost held all of the energy over all the secular and holy affairs and technological know-how seldom had an area to broaden, the theological worldview could not always be ever-triumphant and ever-valid. Once coming across holistic adjustments or encountering the assault of heterodox thought, the faiths of Western human beings could be lax, which would shake and even destroy the entire Christian theological worldview.

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Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries first revolted. The self-awakening catalyzed through humanism and the revival of historical Greek and Roman cultures broke down the unified complexion under the reign of theology. Man as a scientific grasp rather than God inside the theological international became the center of social lifestyles and educational researchers. Technological know-how won a previous threat to grow.6 Then Reformation, in opposition to the ethical corruption of the Catholic Church and the sham of the dualistic opposite of soul and body, advocated “justification through faith” and spiritual tolerance and rejected the absolute authority of and the on secular managed by the Church.7 Therefore, science got rid of the no secular restriction of theology. Enlightenment in the seventeenth and 18th centuries in Europe, in addition, fulfilled the ideological liberation of Western Europe. Eight Reason replaced religion, and theology receded into the heritage. Modern technological know-how emerged as the times require.


The intellectual revolutions above are the main reasons for the rise of current technology; however, inside the final evaluation, the origins are from the collapse of the Christian theological worldview and the rise of the scientific worldview. It is plain that the disintegrate of Christian theological worldview became going with a series of the highbrow revolutions-Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment. But commonly speak me, it can be explained in phrases of the inherent issues of Christian theological worldview within and the attack of “heterodox” mind from outside.

First, the gadget of medieval scholasticism that wholly made a stand for Christian theology, although it attempted to shorten the massive hole among cause and faith, because of its insistence on “faith advanced to reason,” finally could not maintain the stability and harmony among faith and reason. On the only hand, J. D. Scotus’ idea of “double fact” multiplied the departure of religion and cause.9 On the other hand, mysticism contended an instantaneous encounter and mystical union with God, including J. Eckhart, stated, “God and soul had been neither unacquainted nor far away, so soul became no longer most effective consistent with God, however same with God.”10 Mysticism disdained all secular affairs. Therefore, the theological dualistic worldview becomes converted right into a transcendental monistic worldview that refused any intervention of human purpose. W. Ockham’s nominalism argued towards the doctrines made up via scholasticism and the arguments of God’s existence. His precept of simplicity called “Ockham’s razor” contended that “what can be defined on fewer standards is explained needlessly by more” eleven, which has become a “prodder setting medieval theological machine into disintegration.”12 Consequently, Western European inside the overdue Middle Ages misplaced their confidence in the Christian theological worldview and began to inn to purpose.

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Secondly, Copernicus’ heliocentricism affected the worldview of the modern-day scientists and philosophers in the Renaissance, and geocentrism of the theological worldview turned into a serious challenge. Humans misplaced the superiority built through Christian theology within the cosmos, and the dualistic relation between heaven and the sector changed into unfastened. Scientists at that time, e.G. Galileo simplest appeared God as the prime efficient purpose of the physical global and disadvantaged God of the identity of final reason. Therefore, the energy and the omnipotence of God have been questioned. Due to the impact of medical explore, other scientists, including Bruno, frequently adopted a pantheistic function as a substitute for the theological dualistic worldview. Meanwhile, an inclination in modern philosophy gradually emerged to cooperate with technological know-how to rationalize the sector. For instance, Descartes “first made use of God’s existence for the objectivity and fact of the bodily global after which locked God into coffee and defined the shape of the sector in a scientific view.”13 As for the hassle of the transcendental international in theology turned into “hanged” and became a “pseudo-hassle.” The pantheistic metaphysics of Spinoza excluded the existence of the transcendental international, which additionally gave a death blow to the dualistic theological worldview.

On the opposite hand, the empiricism initiated via Locke evolved to Hume have become thorough positivism of skepticism, which in the end denied on secular substance and the existence of causal necessity and denied all the tribes of the arguments of God’s lifestyles via human motive and empirical facts, which greatly fluctuated the premise of theology. Kant’s principle of the antinomies and essential rational theology contended that the transcendental international or noumenal international, the life of God, and the immortality of soul couldn’t be proved. Therefore, theology becomes excluded from human understanding. Hegel’s rationalistic dialectic metaphysics appeared the variational procedure of the real global as the self-unfolding of absolute spirit and transformed the dualistic worldview into absolute idealism. The dualistic worldview became ultimately discarded, and Christian theological beliefs had been evanesced in Hegel’s system. Thus, motive gained the benefit over faith, and the scientistic worldview in preference to the theological dualistic worldview has become the dominant ideology of Western Europe.

The upward thrust of current science could not start until the conventional dualistic worldview becomes transformed, due to the fact weltanschauung is the final knowledge of the world or human lifestyles of people, which is capable of doubtlessly predominate the closing mindset towards and sports in the existence of thinkers, social people or even the hundreds in a region. That is, handiest if the traditional theological worldview turned into changed using a brand new purpose-primarily based worldview viz. The scientistic worldview, the upward thrust of cutting-edge technological know-how, could have an ultimate guarantee. In a phrase, the origins of the rise of cutting-edge science were the crumble of the theological dualistic worldview and the predominance of the clinical worldview.

The conversion from theology to science has each nice and terrible influence on Western records. After one foot up on the quick lane of scientific improvement, the practical life of Western Europe turned substantially stepped forward, the material civilization became rapidly progressed, the exploration of nature and geography changed into continuously superior, and the era was dramatically reformed. Thence, Western countries made continuous progress while Eastern international locations fell ways at the back of. They affect the conversion from theology to science unmeasurable, just as historian H. Butterfield mentioned on this problem: “The effect on the world lifestyle of the upward push of contemporary technological know-how inside the 17th century should most effectively be noted within the same breath with the upward thrust of Christianity within the first century.”14 However, it no longer means that this conversion doesn’t negatively affect Western Europe. “Weltanschauung may be notion as a type of comprehensive experience that maximum doubtlessly impacts the cultural atmosphere e.G. Educational thoughts, lifestyles patterns, living attitudes and so forth of any u. S . A . And society.”15 Accordingly, whilst the weltanschauung of the humans in a location undergoes a proper-approximately or fundamental conversion, the educational subculture and existence attitudes and behaviors may have holistic modifications.

Because the traditional dualistic worldview was the dominant ideology from Aristotle to the late Middle Ages, wherein Western European soaked themselves and took it with no consideration all of the time, the now secular crisis of Western European was coming at the simply day the theological worldview collapsed. In the context that the theological worldview nodded to its fall and nihilism became widespread around Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky and Nietzsche, and so forth. The nineteenth century inaugurated the philosophical ideas of existentialism in an accident to keep the no secular crisis and return the lost psychic home of Western Europe.

Danish logician Kierkegaard’s existentialistic notion changed into a vital response to Hegel’s rationalism, which rejected Hegel’s overlook of theology and the hassle of religion and contended that theological understanding and Christian ideals are the subjective reality that cannot be evanesced in customary goal knowledge. He concept that rationalizes Hegel and so on held the location of the supremacy of purpose and decreased the transcendental world into the abstract idea, which obliterated the paradoxicality (reality as subjectivity) of theology and the non-rationality (now not congruent with reason however with emotions and faith) of the dualistic worldview.


Russian novelist Dostoevsky found the trouble of destiny of existence after the collapse of the theological worldview. In his novels from Crime and Punishment to The Brothers Karamazov, he discussed how looking for the nonsecular way out after the comedown of religion in God. He implied that Western human beings could not find a savior for their religious crisis besides Christian theology and beliefs. Another initiator of existentialism and a consultant figure of the philosophy of Will Nietzsche, although likewise criticizing rationalism, driven the theological dualistic worldview into collapse at the same time. From the assumption of “God is useless” (Nietzsche certainly believed that Western Europeans had misplaced the theological worldview.), he claimed that each one conventional morality, philosophies, and theologies need to be revalued with the collapse of the dualistic worldview. New values and ideals must be established via the Superperson who can harmonize the animal nature with the intellect and balance Dionysian and Apollonian elements. His theory of the Will to Power is the foundation of his philosophy of the Superperson. Sixteen

From the argument above, it’s far obvious that the conversion from theology to technology, even though it introduced high fabric civilization to the Western international, yet also produced a deep religious crisis for Western human beings. The scientistic worldview in the acute might regard purpose because the particular preferred to evaluate all values and exclude any other “scientistic” worldviews, which might, in addition, reject the value and meaning of religion and affection and completely alienate human beings from the recognition of lifestyles. Furthermore, the improvement of scientific theories could have inspired the development of productive technologies, which might increasingly more decorate the danger of scientific technicalization. And the maximum risk of the medical technicalization is to do away with the motive of cost by using the cost of tool and allow people to overlook the problem of existence of themselves and end up the common “Massman” or the “commonplace herd” degenerated from the actual and man or woman living inside the mathematically mechanical technique. In the context of no secular externalization and secularization, the Christian ideals disappeared while the theological dualistic worldview lost its unique means.