Origin And Development Of Guidance And Counseling Practice In Tanzanian Schools


1.0. Overview

1.1. Background and History of Guidance and Counseling in General in School Practice and another placing

The history of faculty counseling formally started on the turn of the 20 the century, despite the fact that a case may be made for tracing the rules of counseling and steering concepts to historical Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is likewise evidence to argue that a number of the techniques and competencies of modern-day steerage counselors were practiced by means of Catholic priests inside the center ages, as can be visible by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the give up of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about profession options seemed: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by means of Tomaso Garzoni quoted in Guez, W. & Allen, J. (2000). Nevertheless, formal steerage packages the usage of specialized textbooks did now not start till the turn of the twentieth century.

Counseling is a concept that has existed for a long time in Tanzania. We have sought through the a while to recognize ourselves, provide counsel and broaden our capacity, come to be aware of possibilities and, in trendy, assist ourselves in ways associated with formal guidance exercise. In most communities, there has been, and there nevertheless is, a deeply embedded conviction that, underneath proper situations, humans can assist others with their troubles. Some human beings assist others locate approaches to managing, solving, or transcending issues as Nwoye, (2009) prescribed in his writings. In schools, presently if the collaboration among teachers and students is good, college students learn in a realistic way. Young humans expand ranges of freedom of their lives as they become aware of alternatives and take advantage of them. At its nice, assisting should permit humans to throw off chains and manage life situations efficiently. Unprecedented monetary and social changes have, over time, modified the methods wherein we manipulate our lives. Consequently, no longer all of the classes of the beyond can correctly deal with the demanding situations of current instances. Effective counseling, specifically in establishments of getting to know has now grow to be essential. Boys and women, and younger males and females, need to be guided within the relationships between health and the environment, incomes competencies, information, and attitudes that result in fulfillment and failure in existence. The need for counseling has turn out to be paramount as a way to sell the well-being of the kid. Effective steering and counseling should assist to enhance the self-image of young humans and facilitate fulfillment in lifestyles obligations. Counseling should empower ladies and boys to participate absolutely in, and benefit from, the financial and social improvement of the country.

2.0. Definitions of Concepts

2.1. Guidance

Guidance is an act of displaying the manner for some people, like teens, who can not locate the proper direction. It is directing, pointing, main and accompanying. Guidance is pronouncing “Yes” to a person who is inquiring for help. It is pronouncing “Yes” to an invitation from someone who wishes a temporary accomplice along lifestyles’ way.

Guidance is giving directions to the lonely, confused, unloved, the struggling, the sick and the lost. It is pointing to some opportunities of questioning, feeling and acting. It is mainly the individual psychologically, emotionally and even spiritually to a few more modern approaches of significant residing. It is accompanying folks that are anxious and uncertain, folks that need a person alongside the rugged path of existence’s adventure.

From an objective factor of view, guidance is a part and parcel of the counseling profession. It is called directive counseling. High college or even university college students want to steer when they may be unsure of what alternatives to make or what directions to take. The guidance counselor “opens up” an international of choices for those people for them to select from. It is like presenting the universe when all that someone sees is the lonely planet earth. The steerage counselor enlarges and widens the horizon of folks that see best a slim direction or a hid view of that path. Thus, the focus is on possibilities and selections.


Usually, guidance takes place in schools. High school and college students avail of guidance and counseling services of their school. More regularly, younger humans are uncertain of what to do, how to react or reply, and how to act in positive choices. When this occurs, they need a person older, wiser and greater experienced to expose them the way, to manual them. This is the function of the guidance counselor to extend help whilst vital to individuals who are stressed, unsure, and wanting advice. However, a few adults might also want guidance too.

2.2. Counseling:

Counseling is guiding and extra. It is a way of restoration hurts. It is each a science and an art. It is a technology because to offer recommend, recommendation or help, the counselor should have the understanding of the simple principles and techniques of counseling. The counselor ought to be capable of use any of those basic ideas and strategies as paradigms in order for him to recommend well. However, it isn’t always sufficient to use know those fundamental standards and strategies. The different essential element is for the counselor to recognize a way to suggest-the artwork of counseling. This aspect considers counseling as a dating, as a sharing of existence, within the hope that the individual that is hurting can be healed. As a courting, counseling entails the bodily, emotional, and psychical or spiritual dimensions. The counselor ought to have the capacity to relate to the counselee in the right physical manner with out being too intimate or too near for consolation or being too remote or aloof. The emotional measurement in counseling includes empathy, sensitivity and the capacity to interpret non-verbal clues of the counselee with a purpose to apprehend unresolved complexes or pent-up feelings. The psychical or spiritual measurement embraces the counselee’s “soul-content material”—what lies internal. This is what is known as the interiority of the person. The counselor ought to have the present or grace of catching a glimpse of the indoors world of the individual, in particular his spiritual circumstance, for this is very essential in restoration the person’s hurts.Counseling

2.Three. Other Definitions of the Concepts

Biswalo (1996) defines guidance as a time period used to denote the method of supporting an individual to benefit self knowledge and self route (self-decision-making) so that he can regulate maximally to his domestic, faculty or community environment. This method, but, depends on counseling. He also defines counseling as a method of helping an individual to just accept and use records and advice in order that he can either solve his gift hassle or cope with it effectively. He goes in addition remarking that on occasion the procedure allows the character to accept unchangeable state of affairs for instance, lack of dearly loved ones and to some extent change it in its favour instead of letting himself be overcome by the state of affairs. Guez and Allen (2000) remarked that it’s miles difficult to consider a unmarried definition of counseling. This is because definitions of counseling rely upon theoretical orientation. Counseling is a mastering-orientated technique, which happens generally in an interactive dating, with the goal of assisting a person analyze extra about the self, and to apply such know-how to enable the person to emerge as an powerful member of society. Counseling is a technique by means of which the helper expresses care and issue in the direction of the individual with a problem, and helps that person’s private boom and brings approximately change thru self-understanding. Counseling is a dating among a involved man or woman and someone with a need. This dating is commonly person-to-man or woman, despite the fact that from time to time it is able to involve extra than two people. It is designed to assist humans to recognize and make clear their views, and learn how to reach their self-determined goals thru significant, well-knowledgeable picks, and thru the resolution of emotional or interpersonal issues. It can be seen from those definitions that counseling can have one of a kind meanings.

3.0. Origin of Guidance and Counseling Practice in Pre-Colonial Era

Counseling in Tanzania in extraordinary bureaucracy and with distinctive interpretations, has existed in societies for a long time earlier than colonial generation. The variations and contradictions in present-day, have their origin within the social and historical forces that have fashioned present day way of life. In Tanzania humans in all societies, and always, have skilled emotional or psychological distress and behavioural problems. In every way of life, there have been nicely set up ways and methods of supporting individuals with their issues. However, there are no sufficient written assets about the origin of steering and counseling exercise in Tanzanian colleges. But like other locations before colonial generation there have been brilliant unique elements which held the societies together in their livelihood. The factors encompass the prolonged own family system, together with the clan and the tribe, chieftaincy, taboos, various types of initiation and near links with ancestors and elders.

The village is the point of interest of society. While each this kind of elements is vital, only some are used to illustrate the position of steering and counseling in present-day Tanzanian societies. Basically, traditional chiefs had multiple roles which covered serving as a image of authority and as a regulator. Since those roles have been standard and revered by all, there was a clean course within the day-to-day affairs of society. The elders, the chief covered, have been a valuable supply of guidance and counseling for boys and ladies. In most cases, the chiefs were seemed as a critical hyperlink among ancestors and the prevailing era. This hyperlink turned into bolstered through the rituals, ceremonies and taboos connected to them. It changed into clean to manual and counsel the young, for the reason that rituals or ceremonies were additionally aimed toward guidance for adult roles in society. The extended own family, the clan, and the village, made society supportive. No person seemed him/herself as alien. Counseling become quite simply sought and supplied. The varieties of guidance and counseling involved have been given advice and sharing information.

4.0. The Developments of Guidance and Counseling Practices in Tanzanian Schools

4.1. Guidance and Counseling Practices in Tanzanian Schools Trends

In realizing this perhaps, due to the fact we’re thinking of the principles in college putting, we have to suppose the which means of counseling in schooling subject. One may want to suppose that the definitions are given above on the time period guidance and counseling, their meaning may be directed to schooling grounds and now supply the that means efficiently. Guez and Allen (2000) mentioned that a term academic counseling was first coined by Truman Kelley in 1914 in Makinde, (1988), academic counseling is a manner of rendering offerings to students who need assistance in making selections approximately critical factors in their education, which include the selection of publications and studies, choices regarding pastimes and ability, and picks of college and excessive school. Educational counseling will increase a scholar’s expertise of educational opportunities.

The ever growing complexity of society in Tanzania, coupled with social troubles like HIV/AIDS and the rapid development of technological know-how and era, area heavy needs on training. The school, as a critical social group, become required to conform quickly to converting patterns and assist prepare residents for the following day’s demanding situations. That is in which guidance and counseling within the academic machine should assist boys and girls alike, to increase their capacities to the full. These consist of intellectual, social, bodily and ethical capacities. This help is of the maximum essential in Tanzania so long as the records and age of schooling provision and in its structures discovered these days.

Guidance and counseling practices development in Tanzanian colleges can be traced back from the time when vocational education changed into emerging right on the colonial length. In the technique of establishing counseling offerings in Tanzania, there was a want to first understand the underlying elements that affect human beings’s ideals and perceptions about such practices. However, that is concept that was no longer taken in to attention at the time and it may be up to latest time. It is mainly crucial to recognize the financial, socio-political, religious ideals, customs and traditions, and cultural adjustments which are present in distinct regions of the United States. Young people should be understood inside this context, but additionally within the paradoxical situation of getting to stand the conventional and the current international, however this is a massive assignment to Tanzania and many developing African nations. During colonial duration there were some shape of vocational steerage beneath the career steering and it turned into administered by using profession masters. But the career masters who have been selected via the top of schools had no expert training in vocational steerage. In reality the responsibility become restricted to assisting students fill out employment forms and writing letters of application. In the missionary faculties vocational guidance changed into restricted to no secular offerings. The teachers who were typically ‘fathers’, pastors, or reverends guided and skilled spiritually inclined youths to turn out to be sisters, brothers, fathers and pastors upon their of completion of formal schooling.

Apart of what may be performed in faculties in Tanzania, guidance and counseling was extra or much less a personal family affair. Parents and loved ones recommended their youngsters on all matters of existence control and problem-solving. It is true that during many families the responsibility of trendy guidance became the conventional duty of senior participants of the own family, father, mother, uncle, aunt, and grandparents. In a case of serious personal or family problems, counseling was executed via an especially prepared by the community as a competent in managing that specific hassle. This is performed with none understanding received from formal or casual faculty system however as a substitute through revel in and age smart through accrued wisdom. This sort of early form of counseling from school setting and community helped the younger to be brought into the intense photo of living within the future to the society.

Four.2. Guidance and Counseling Practices in Tanzanian Schools in Post-colonial era

In numerous literature and sources, steering and counseling in schooling quarter in Tanzania and some different African countries is regarded because of the youngest subject. This is evidenced by way of First International Conference on Guidance, Counseling and Youth Development in Africa held in Nairobi, Kenya from twenty-second to twenty-sixth April, 2002 which pointed out that the Guidance, Counseling and Youth Development Programme became initiated in Africa in April 1994, following the First Pan African Conference on the Education of Girls that was held in Ouagadougou in 1993. It is designed to introduce or beef up guidance and counseling in African international locations. It specializes in the potential building within the countries concerned and affords an education at each local and national tiers on troubles of guidance and counseling of colleges and faculties.

What we will name professional steerage and counseling in Tanzania schools begin in the year 1984 following the National October 1984 Arusha Conference, in which steerage and counseling offerings had been advocated by means of the authorities as and crucial a part of us of a’s training gadget (Biswalo, 1996). The aim of the conference is to establish systematic criteria for secondary faculties college students’ steerage and counseling. Students had been then suggested, guided and counseled on topics regarding their activity choice and student placement for in additional training. This task became assigned to career masters and mistresses as explained below, but, there had been no enough guidance and counseling employees no longer only in the responsible ministry however additionally in the colleges.

Guidance and Counseling are now turning into slowly institutionalized and unfold in instructional establishments. Schools, for example, have to a large extent taken over the mission of supplying mental guide to boys and ladies. However, Biswalo (1996) remarks that during Tanzania policies pertinent to steerage and counseling remains lacking. The Ministry of Education, but, has by hook or by crook attempted to institutionalize the services inside the training machine with the aid of appointing career masters and mistresses. He persevered saying that the employees are charged with the responsibility of advising heads of secondary schools regarding college students task selection and scholar placement for similarly schooling; to attempt to assist college students understands and develop interest in appropriate jobs or in addition education or schooling; to asses the scholars talents and competencies and to encourage them to pursue careers or further education nice perfect to them and to help students resolve their personal issues which may affect their popular progress in college.

This is a not possible and sensible burden on that untrained personnel. It displays the apathy of coverage and choice makers regarding the brand new field of guidance and counseling in colleges; the energy of the myth of deliberate manpower wherein profession steerage is erroneously regarded as redundant and the gross loss of educated employees who would offer effective guidance and counseling offerings in schools. It is unlucky that even after the National October 1984 Arusha Conference on the strengthening of education in Tanzania, where steering and counseling offerings have been recommended by the authorities as and imperative a part of u . S . A .’s schooling device, the services are to-date nevertheless patchy and ineffective in Tanzania’s educational institutions. Guidance and counseling on this way are discussed by means of special students in primary, secondary and tertiary training levels collectively.

Five.0. Guidance and Counseling Practices in Primary and Secondary Schools

In primary school tiers in Tanzania in actual fact, there were and aren’t any detailed scholars’ instructor-counselors. However, the hobby is left to instructors themselves to determine what is to be done due to the fact that there may be no programmed or time-tabled hobby regarding guidance and counseling. Teachers are left to use a part of the coaching to practice steerage and counseling in and out of doors the school room even though now not all teachers have gone instructor-counselor training. As kids enter college they need orientation on the school itself, its environment, school network and the curriculum to inspire and expand effective mind-set in the direction of gaining knowledge of and college network as nicely (Biswalo, 1996). As the pupils grow older and skip via one of a kind grades they want to be directed in analyzing abilities, overcome getting to know problems and other school associated troubles. But this hobby isn’t always carried out systematically in primary colleges in Tanzania.

In the case of secondary colleges until to-date there’s additionally insufficient programmed or time-tabled system of guiding and counseling students. In a few cases, this obligation is left to subject masters and now and again to class masters and head of faculties. At the secondary faculty level, college students might are trying to find instructional possibilities, records of a wide variety and another help pertinent to academic hobbies. These wishes are catered to through instructional guidance and counseling (ibid). At this stage college students are helped with situation choice, look at techniques and assessments and exam. Biswalo (1996) talked about that every now and then in the course of problem preference, the pleasure of placing as many students as possible in prestigious streams, such as science, takes precedence over real capabilities, interests, and aptitudes of college students. He stated this unlucky situation has been born out of the dearth of real academic guidance and counseling offerings in secondary faculties.

The faculty has a crucial role to play in preparing students for endured secondary education, paid employment, self-employment, and life in the network, as honestly set out via the Ministry of Education within the targets for its secondary curriculum. Perhaps uniquely, there could be total settlement amongst students, teachers, and dad and mom over the relative emphasis certain schools placed at the coaching for in additional training, with its awareness of academic understanding and the pursuit of fulfillment in the national examinations. That is, the secondary colleges wherein counseling is not well executed located little emphasis on citizenship and the development of a responsible attitude to lifestyles inside the community at the nearby, nearby or national stage and employment possibilities. However, what’s de-emphasized is the informal quarter consisting of self-employment, however, the emphasised is employment inside the formal area with its implied emphasis on white collar jobs.

5.1. Vocational, Career Guidance and Counseling

In Tanzania, instructors have the ability to immediately have an impact on their pupils’ choice of careers. The achievements and attitudes of scholars were proven to be associated with the characteristics and achievements of their instructors (World Bank, 1995; quoted in Nyutu, P.N. & Norman C.G. 2008). However, the affect of the college relies upon on the formal interactions and communication which take vicinity between teachers and scholars in the lecture room whereas television and radio, act thru the casual interactions pupils have with these media. The have an impact on of mother and father and siblings is through each formal and casual means.

That is in most cases in Tanzania and can be other states in which steerage and counseling are rarely carried out in schools; dad and mom play the large role in influencing on their kid’s desire of careers. Others who have lower stage careers i.E. Teachers, clerks, drivers, private secretaries, squaddies etc. Do not count on their children ‘following in their footsteps’ due to the fact for the children who are able to examine to higher level once in a while saw these jobs as slender and missing in interest. However it’s miles recommended that dad and mom’ occupation might have motivated their children’s preference of careers, however this happened to kids who’ve universal competencies useful in such jobs, and some may also have job skills applicable to the ones jobs. Access to records thru the media and other styles of generation is giving young human beings aspirations that, for the most element, cannot be satisfied with their personal surroundings. Choices need to be made and young people ought to accumulate the talents to evaluate conditions and make informed decisions. There is now not a natural, understandable order from beginning to maturity for the Tanzanian younger.

Vocational steerage at secondary college tiers is provided however in very few among others due to shortages of school or vocational skilled counselors. For those fortunate schools with those styles of counselors, college students are helped but vocational counseling isn’t emphasized because maximum scholars, teachers and of path dad and mom push students to make lengthy range plans of examine in order that to put together nicely for the envisaged careers. These counselors plan with school administrators and instructors to provide appropriate class placement for college kids with unique abilities or disabilities for direction choice by using college students.


Five.2. Tertiary Level

The tertiary degree students are furnished with orientation and different instructional steerage and counseling. In Tanzania tertiary degree have at least fulfilled the want of having certified college students’ counselors for both mental and teachers, even though they may be few in a wide variety. Here counselors play a big role in compiling comprehensive facts on all aspects of the careers related to the education provided inside the organization. Counselors every now and then combine with management or practicum branch to organize area practices for college students and even extra not often might contact with relevant using companies (Biswalo, 1996).
6.Zero. Notion on Guidance and Counseling in Tanzania

According to the research by means of Sima (2004), professional counseling is yet to be diagnosed as a stand-by myself profession in Tanzania and in many African countries. Nevertheless, the coming and putting of HIV/Aids in the country have strengthened the bottom for counseling. This is especially due to the multifaceted nature of the HIV/Aids pandemic whose attention, not like different human illnesses, is going past the prerogatives of the scientific profession. Thus, counseling is perceived as a critical road for prevention of HIV infection via the provision of adequate and relevant statistics, and for the social and mental help of human beings inflamed and stricken by the pandemic. Ibid continued saying that because the emergence of the pandemic within the country, some of the non-governmental corporations had been supplying counseling services, however, there may be a loss of clarity of the kind and nature of counseling offerings presented by using that business enterprise. The nature and characteristics of counseling clients additionally stay fuzzy.

In Tanzania, the expert counseling as aforesaid is quite a brand new phenomenon. Outwater (1995) quoted in Sima (2004) remarks that earlier than HIV/Aids epidemic, there has been no formal counseling carrier in Tanzanian hospitals, no professional counselors and no formal gadget for schooling counselors. There become a want to fill this hole with the aid of training as many counselors as feasible to offer most beneficial take care of AIDS sufferers and their loved ones (NACP, 1989; quoted in ibid). Since then many para-professional counselors have been educated in basic understanding and abilities of counseling. Currently, there are numerous counseling facilities working no longer best on HIV/Aids related problems but additionally specific issues affecting Tanzanians. However, as counseling became popular with the arrival of HIV/Aids, many people expect that it is best supposed for human beings infected and suffering from HIV/Aids and pull away from it for worry of being labeled (Sima, 2002; quoted in Sima 2004).

7.Zero. Problems and Challenges

The Tanzanian authorities have now not but formulated inside the schooling policy issues pertaining steerage and counseling no matter the crucially and necessity in schools. Biswalo (1996) mentioned that in Tanzania regulations pertinent to guidance and counseling remains lacking. He endured announcing that efforts directed in the direction of Pleasant guidance and counseling needs are seemingly thwarted by using numerous problems which include financial resources to guide the even set up tiny counseling sports in numerous faculties.

In Tanzania till today counseling is an enormously new phenomenon. There are no sufficient certified counselors in schools and different training institutions. However, there are confined a quantity of certified counselors, they are both now not applied properly in colleges or they’re engaged in different sports in place of what they are educated for. Some of the faculty counselors also are instructors and they are absolutely interested in teaching duties. More tremendously counseling is perceived as a vital road for only prevention of HIV infection thru provision of ok and relevant records, and for social and psychological assist of humans infected and suffering from the HIV/Aids (Sima, 2004).

There is the sluggish growth of steerage and counseling in instructional systems attributed to the loss of price range, schooling centers, and excessive turnover of steering counselors to inexperienced pastures and in thoroughly skilled counselors. For instance, in lots of schools, they lack counseling workplaces, skilled trainer-counselors and counseling equipment. In terms of funds, there are numerous options that may be explored to alleviate financial constraints. Special schools on behalf of dad and mom in want can approach non-governmental groups.

The absence of strong professional counseling affiliation in Tanzania to set standards for the suitable practice is some other undertaking (Nwoye, 2008). Also, inadequate availability of professional counselor schooling applications in Tanzanian colleges and universities is another contributing challenge.

There aren’t any efforts to establish counseling curriculum in secondary faculties and colleges and steerage and counseling courses at the universities. Guidance curriculum and responsive offerings can then be established to address the 5 content areas, particularly human relationships, career development, social values, self-development, and learning abilities. A steering curriculum might be taught to college students at one-of-a-kind ranges or in small groups to cope with troubles which are similar to them. For guidance and counseling applications to be powerful in Tanzania, skilled experts need to be employed to manage and offer offerings in colleges. Such experts ought to also be furnished with relevant centers and a structural assist. At the identical time, universities and teacher education institutions will set up and develop programs that train professional college counselors and different steerage personnel.

There remains inadequate help in higher training establishments to allow students achieves their career aspirations. However, students nowadays suggest a better want for profession steerage than college students within the beyond decade. Students can also therefore be encountering an improved need to acquire relevant career information with the intention to allow them are seeking for better paid jobs. Many colleges have in the past appointed some teachers as career masters with out offering them with the essential schooling and centers for profession guidance. Such career masters normally expect that every one students will come to be in universities and best cognizance on supporting students entire college utility forms and no greater. It is the excessive time for the authorities to set and implement the coverage a good way to beautify steerage and counseling from number one faculties to the tertiary stage and in turn will increase packages that train professional school counselors and different steerage employees.

Eight.0. Conclusion

Guidance and counseling sought to put together students in their training software to go into the arena of appropriate paintings by using linking the college curriculum to employment. For the college to achieve success in this enterprise, subjects have to be taught at a pleasing and handy surroundings and should be made applicable and interesting to the students. Another issue that desires to be taken into consideration is the recruitment of in a position teachers able to guiding and counseling novices in concerning what they educate to the task market. What is taught and how it is taught could have a brilliant impact on the interest and notion of newbies. In Tanzania, the spirit to plan and use steerage and counseling services within the effective development and usage of their respective younger human resources is naturally sturdy. However, as Biswalo (1996) stated the efforts directed in the direction of pleasant this need are reputedly thwarted by means of numerous problems. It seems total and enlightened commitment on the part of policy and decision makers is important and need to genuinely surmount the problems.

The emergence of professional development in western nations as a construct indicates that it is able to be an essential place in developing us of a like Tanzania in which students want assistance; college students in particular need assistance in selecting faculties and publications. To this stop, the faculties should provide a profession steerage and counseling program below the able leadership of qualified faculty counselors.