History of Educational Technology


There is no written evidence that may inform us precisely who has coined the word educational generation. Different educationists, scientists, and philosophers at one of a kind time durations have placed forwarded unique definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated system regarding people, method, ideas, gadgets, and organization, in which era from specific fields of technology is borrowed as according to the want and requirement of schooling for imposing, evaluating, and coping with answers to those troubles concerned in all elements of human learning.

Educational era, extensively talking, has surpassed through 5 degrees.

The first level of educational generation is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and urban materials. The time period academic era became used as synonyms to audio-visible aids.

The 2nd stage of a tutorial era is associated with the ‘digital revolution’ with the introduction and status quo of state-of-the-art hardware and software program. Use of numerous audio-visual aids like a projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio, and tv delivered a progressive exchange within the educational state of affairs. Accordingly, academic technology idea becomes taken in terms of those state-of-the-art instruments and equipment for effective presentation of educational materials.

The 1/3 level of instructional technology is linked with the development of mass media which in flip caused ‘communique revolution’ for academic purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for training in view that Fifties additionally have become famous throughout this era.

The fourth degree of tutorial generation is discernible by using the individualized system of instruction. The invention of programmed getting to know and programmed preparation provided a brand new size to instructional generation. A system of self-studying primarily based on self-educational substances and coaching machines emerged.Education

The state-of-the-art concept of instructional generation is prompted with the aid of the idea of device engineering or device method which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed practice, multimedia technologies and the use of the laptop in instruction. According to it, the academic era is a systematic way of designing, wearing out and comparing the entire process of teaching and mastering in phrases of unique goals based totally on research.

Educational era at some stage in the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational era, in spite of the uncertainty of the beginning of the term, may be traced lower back to the time of the three-age gadget periodization of human prehistory; particularly the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

During the Stone Age, ignition of fire by means of rubbing stones, manufacture of diverse hand-crafted weapon and utensils from stones and apparel exercise were some of the easy technological tendencies of utmost significance. A fraction of Stone Age humans evolved ocean-worth outrigger canoe ship generation to migrate from one vicinity to some other across the Ocean, with the aid of which they evolved their first casual schooling of expertise of the sea currents, climate conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age length (Neolithic period),for agricultural exercise, polished stone tools were made from a spread of tough rocks largely by means of digging underground tunnels, which can be considered because the first steps in mining generation. The polished axes have been so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; humans used it for clearing forest and the established order of crop farming.


Although Stone Age cultures left no written data, however, archaeological evidence proved their shift from a nomadic existence to agricultural settlement. Ancient gear conserved in distinctive museums, cave artwork like Altamira Cave in Spain, and different prehistoric artwork, together with the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France and so on. Are some of the evidence in favor of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the advent of Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For those practices Bronze Age humans, in addition, developed steel smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the substances of their choice.

The Iron Age humans changed bronze and advanced the information of iron smelting generation to decrease the fee of living due to the fact that iron utensils had been stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age turned into the closing length earlier than the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the duration of Ancient Civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational generation may be traced again to the time whilst tribal clergymen systematized bodies of information and historic cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to report and transmit records. In each degree of human civilization, you’ll locate an educational technique or set of procedures supposed to put into effect a specific lifestyle which have been additionally supported by means of number of investigations and evidences. The extra superior the culture, the extra complex have become the technology of instruction designed to mirror precise approaches of character and social behaviour intended to run an knowledgeable society. Over centuries, every big shift in instructional values, dreams or objectives caused various technologies of training.

The finest advances in generation and engineering got here with the upward push of the historical civilizations. These advances inspired and educated different societies within the global to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization became an early Bronze Age civilization which turned into a place in the northwestern place of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization become primarily flourished across the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab vicinity, extending up to the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is beneath latest Pakistan and the western states of contemporary-day India as well as a few part of the civilization extending up to southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long-term controversy to be sure approximately the language that the Harappan human beings spoke. It is believed that their writing was at least appears to be or a pictographic script. The script seems to have had about four hundred simple signs and symptoms, with lots of variations. People write their script with the path commonly from proper to left. Most of the writing became determined on seals and sealings which have been likely utilized in exchange and authentic & administrative paintings.

Harappan people had the know-how of the measuring gear of duration, mass, and time. They have been the first in the world to expand a machine of uniform weights and measures.

In a look at completed by means of P. N. Rao et al. In 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s sample is towards that of spoken phrases, which supported the proposed speculation that it codes for an as-but-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, a number of the foremost techno-services from China encompass paper, early seismological detectors, lavatory paper, fits, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, herbal gas as gasoline, the magnetic compass, the raised-comfort map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step in the direction of traits of instructional technology through similarly culturing one of a kind home made merchandise of paper as an approach of visible aids.

Ancient Egyptian language became at one factor one of the longest surviving and used languages within the international. Their script was made up of images of the real such things as birds, animals, exclusive equipment, and so forth. These pics are popularly known as a hieroglyph. Their language changed into made up of above 500 hieroglyphs that are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were observed and rescued latter on provides the proof of life of many forms of creative hieroglyphics in historic Egypt.

Educational era throughout Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking technique which turned into developed in China for the duration of the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and turned into a spread to Mediterranean via the Muslim conquests. Evidence aid that a paper mill changed into additionally mounted in Sicily inside the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel multiplied the productiveness of thread making manner to a wonderful extent and when Lynn White introduced the spinning wheel with growing deliver of rags, this caused the manufacturing of reasonably-priced paper, which was a top component inside the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press becomes taken area in approximately 1450 AD, via Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press turned into a high developmental aspect within the records of instructional generation to carry the training as consistent with the want of the complex and advanced-era cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, at the same time as enterprise became truely the handwork at artisan level, the academic techniques have relied closely upon easy matters like the slate, the horn e-book, the blackboard, and chalk. It becomes constrained to a single textual content book with a few illustrations. Educational era changed into considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pix.

The yr 1873 can be taken into consideration a landmark in the early history of a generation of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition became held in Vienna at worldwide level in which an American school gained the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and different types of equipment.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), across the world famed toddler educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on instructional era via her development of graded materials designed to offer for the proper sequencing of the problem be counted for every person learner. Modern educational era indicates many extensions of Montessori’s concept of organized infant targeted surroundings.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s layout of a widespread motive computing tool laid the muse of the modern-day laptop and in 1943, the primary computing gadget as in line with hello design turned into constructed by way of International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted Education (CAI) in which the PC capabilities basically as a teach as well as the Talking Type writer was evolved by means of O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computer systems are interestingly utilized in schooling in schools, faculties and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there have been noteworthy changes inside the area of schooling. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its begin of faculty announces in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making a sound contribution to formal schooling. In us, by way of 1952, 20 states had the availability for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the faculties in the United Kingdom had been prepared with radios and there have been normal everyday programs.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state college developed a self-coaching system known as ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his well-known article ‘Science of Learning and artwork of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the know-how derived from behavioral psychology to school room tactics and cautioned automatic coaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first realistic use of Regular tv declares changed into in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin have been broadcasted via television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television started out to be used in general for broadcasting programs for amusement in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for academic functions.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the primary time. It is to have cared that during 1960, because of the industrial revolution in America and Russia, different countries also started out progressing in the filed of instructional technology. In this manner, the start of the tutorial era came about in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe, and India.

During the time of round Fifties, new technocracy becomes turning it enchantment to educations whilst there has been a steep shortage of teachers in America and consequently, an urgent need of educational generation changed into felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a bit later his accomplice, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard brought mass manufacturing era in America.

Team teaching had its beginning in America inside the mid of 1950’s and became first commenced within the 12 months 1955 at Harvard University as part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from the USA brought the taxonomy of tutorial goals via his booklet, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching approach was first followed by Dwight W. Allen and his co-employees at Stanford University in the USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Broadband Internet access became famous and occupied nearly all the important workplaces and educational locations or even in common locations in evolved countries with the benefit of connecting home computers with tune libraries and cellular phones.Technology

Today’s lecture room is more likely to be a generation lab, a room with rows of students using net linked or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps college students are attending a video conferencing or digital study room or can also have been paying attention to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes inside the subject of instructional have created new approaches to train and to study. Technological adjustments also motivated the lecturers to access a diffusion of records on a international scale thru the Internet, to decorate their training as well as to lead them to equipped professional of their place of situation. At the equal time, students can make use of tremendous sources of the Internet to enhance their learning enjoy to manage up with changing fashion of the society. Now a days college students as properly teachers are attending seminars, meetings, workshops at countrywide and global stage via the usage of the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint or even they pursue a ramification of vital courses in their desire in distance mode via on line mastering methods. Online mastering facility has opened limitless quantity of doors of possibilities for contemporary learner to make their life happier than ever before.

Presently Research Associate within the ICFAI University and have been pursuing Ph.D. from Gauhati University, Assam.